abacus Definitions


a board, tray, or table, divided into perforated compartments for holding bottles, cups, or the like; a kind of buffet, cupboard, or sideboard.

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  • early devices used to aid in calculation include the abacus (still common in e asia) and the counting rods, or bones, of the scottish mathematician john napier. the slide rule, invented in 1622 by william oughtred, an english mathematician, was widely used to make approximate calculations, but it has been replaced by the electronic calculator. in 1642, blaise pascal devised what was probably the first simple adding machine using geared wheels. factmonster.com

  • is from the latin calculi (pebbles), used by the romans for counters. in the abacus, the round balls were called calculi, and it was by this instrument the roman boys were taught to count and calculate. the greeks voted by pebbles dropped into an urn- a method adopted both in ancient egypt and syria; counting these pebbles was “calculating” the number of voters. (see page 2, col. 1, abacus.) infoplease.com

  • successful treatment with neoadjuvant programmed death receptor-1 (pd-1) blockade is gaining traction in resectable lung cancer, as evidenced by the published results of single-arm studies with nivolumab alone and atezolizumab combined with chemotherapy. this treatment strategy was also shown to be active in other common tumors, such as urothelial carcinoma (pure-01 and abacus trials), melanoma, and colon cancer. medpagetoday.com