not in the axis. applied to an embryo placed out of the axis of the seed.
horses with osteochondral chip fragmentation (most commonly seen in the carpus and fetlock joints) are treated with arthroscopic surgery to minimize the ongoing development of osteoarthritis. fragments are removed, and defective bone and cartilage debrided. rest periods of 2–4 mo follow, and physical therapy regimens are instituted in the convalescent period. the success rate in returning horses to previous performance level is high when secondary osteoarthritic changes are minimal at the time of surgery. osteochondral chip fragments that are amenable to arthroscopic surgery and have successful results include those associated with the distal radius or carpal bones; dorsoproximal first phalanx; proximal palmar/plantar first phalanx; apical, abaxial, and basilar fragments of the proximal sesamoid bones; fragmentation of the distal patella in the femoropatellar joint; chip fragments of the tibiotarsal joint; and fragments of the extensor process of the distal phalanx (coffin joint). merckmanuals.com