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acetyltransferase Definitions

noun

transacetylase

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transacetylase

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  • researchers at the indiana university school of medicine (iusm) built on past research on blood biomarkers that indicate mood disorders to identify a set of blood biomarkers for suicide risk. they then tested groups with high risk of suicide and the blood of those who had already committed suicide, finding that the biomarkers correlated with risk, specifically biomarker sat1 (spermidien/spermine n1—acetyltransferase 1). everydayhealth.com

  • nonetheless, this study, which was published in 2015 in bipolar disorders, is the first to show that lamotrigine can normalize an naa deficit in bipolar depression. it also corroborates animal and preclinical models of lamotrigine-associated neuroprotection. dr. croarkin says two mechanisms of action may be at work: increased naa levels might be mediated through activating aspartate n-acetyltransferase, which promotes naa synthesis, or they may be associated with a reduction in glu levels. other studies have demonstrated increased naa with lithium therapy and glutamate modulators such as riluzole. mayoclinic.org

  • aanat: the synbol for the enzyme arylalkylamine n-acetyltransferase and for the gene that encodes it. aanat is present in animals, bacteria and yeast but in no other living organisms. aanat belongs to the large superfamily of acetyltransferase enzymes. aanat is used to make melatonin, a hormone that regulates the body's cycles of sleeping and waking. medicinenet.com

  • the hgsnat gene provides instructions for producing an enzyme called heparan-alpha-glucosaminide n-acetyltransferase (which is often shortened to n-acetyltransferase). this enzyme is located in lysosomes, compartments within cells that digest and recycle different types of molecules. n-acetyltransferase is involved in the step-wise breakdown (degradation) of large molecules called glycosaminoglycans (gags). gags are composed of sugar molecules that are linked together to form a long string. to break down these large molecules, individual sugars are removed one at a time from one end of the molecule. n-acetyltransferase adds a molecule called an acetyl group to the sugar glucosamine in a subset of gags called heparan sulfate. this addition prepares the gag for the next step in the degradation process. medlineplus.gov

  • acetylcholine is the major neurotransmitter of the bulbospinal motor neurons, autonomic preganglionic fibers, postganglionic cholinergic (parasympathetic) fibers, and many neurons in the cns (eg, basal ganglia, motor cortex). it is synthesized from choline and acetyl coenzyme a by choline acetyltransferase, and its action is rapidly terminated via local hydrolysis to choline and acetate by acetylcholinesterase. acetylcholine levels are regulated by choline acetyltransferase and by choline uptake. levels of this neurotransmitter are decreased in patients with alzheimer disease. merckmanuals.com