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rna Definitions

noun

ribonucleic acid.

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  • an occupational exposure that might place hcp at risk for zika virus infection is defined as a percutaneous injury (e.g., a needlestick or cut with a sharp object) or direct contact of mucous membrane or non-intact skin (e.g., skin that is abraded, cut, or has active dermatitis) with blood, tissue, or other body fluids that are potentially infectious. knowledge about the presence of zika virus and viral ribonucleic acid (rna) in blood or body fluids continues to grow; as of this publication, zika virus has been detected by viral culture in several different body fluids including blood,1-3 urine,4-6 amniotic fluid,7 a conjunctival swab,8 breast milk,9 semen,10-14 vaginal secretions,15 and saliva.6,16 zika virus rna, which might not represent infectious virus, has also been detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) in cerebrospinal fluid,17-20 aqueous humor,21 cervical mucous,22 and nasopharyngeal4,23 and endocervical swabs.18,22 cdc.gov

  • 26. v. e. volchkov, v. a. volchkova, e. muhlberger, l. v. kolesnikova, m. weik, o. dolnik, h. d. klenk, "recovery of infectious ebola virus from complementary dna: rna editing of the gp gene and viral cytotoxicity," science 291 (9 march 2001): 1965-69; epub 1 february 2001 and s. p. westphal, "ebola virus could be synthesized," new scientist, 17 july 2002. cia.gov

  • if the antibody test is positive, your doctor will conduct another blood test that looks for the rna (genetic material) of hcv in your blood. there are qualitative hcv rna tests and quantitative ones. a qualitative test determines the presence or absence of the virus in your body, while the quantitative rna test measures the viral load, or how much virus is in the blood. everydayhealth.com

  • rna world describes the hypothetical time of the earliest life-forms when genes were simply strands of rna. it is interesting to note that only nucleic acids have the ability to replicate and store genetic information, one of the fundamental characteristics of life. referencing that certain prokaryotes and viruses do not contain dna, but reproduce solely with rna, it is also believed that the earliest life-forms were nucleic acids that simulated rna in structure and function. laboratory experiments confirmed that nucleotide monomers can spontaneously join to form gene-like structures composed of rna segments. they can also create the complementary strand of rna. factmonster.com

  • the role of antiviral therapy in treating powv disease is therefore not clear. though not yet tested in humans, evidence based on in vitro assays and in mouse models suggests the antivirals, ribavirin and favipiravir, which are inhibitors of viral rna-dependent rna polymerases, would inhibit replication of brbv in humans (bricker et al., 2019). there are no current known antivirals for hrtv or ctfv. hhs.gov

  • rna world describes the hypothetical time of the earliest life-forms when genes were simply strands of rna. it is interesting to note that only nucleic acids have the ability to replicate and store genetic information, one of the fundamental characteristics of life. referencing that certain prokaryotes and viruses do not contain dna, but reproduce solely with rna, it is also believed that the earliest life-forms were nucleic acids that simulated rna in structure and function. laboratory experiments confirmed that nucleotide monomers can spontaneously join to form gene-like structures composed of rna segments. they can also create the complementary strand of rna. infoplease.com

  • the purpose of this study is to collect paired maternal and umbilical cord blood samples that can be processed for various traits in the blood, including serum, dna, rna and cells. the long term goal of this project is to start an umbilical and placental tissues biobank, which will operate in parallel to the mayo clinic biobank. in future studies, we may use the serum, dna and rna obtained from cord blood and your blood to understand health and disease. mayoclinic.org

  • positive-strand rna virus: also known as a sense-strand rna virus, a virus whose genetic information consists of a single strand of rna that is the positive (or sense) strand which encodes mrna (messenger rna) and protein. replication in positive-strand rna viruses is via a negative-strand intermediate. examples of positive-strand rna viruses include polio virus, coxsackie virus, and echovirus. medicinenet.com

  • the polr1d gene provides instructions for making one part (subunit) of two related enzymes called rna polymerase i and rna polymerase iii. these enzymes are involved in the production (synthesis) of ribonucleic acid (rna), a chemical cousin of dna. both enzymes help synthesize a form of rna known as ribosomal rna (rrna). rna polymerase iii also plays a role in the synthesis of several other forms of rna, including transfer rna (trna). ribosomal rna and transfer rna assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins, which is essential for the normal functioning and survival of cells. medlineplus.gov

  • "high levels of neg-rna and pos-rna, were detected in plasma up to day 4 and 3, respectively," the researchers wrote. "in the respiratory compartment, neg-rna was present at a concentration of 106 copies/ml up to day 11, and pos-rna was present at a concentration of 104 copies/ml up to day 10. the levels of neg-rna and pos-mrna in sputum samples were 2 or 3-log higher than neg-rna and pos-rna values in plasma, respectively." medpagetoday.com

  • hiv releases rna, the genetic code of the virus, into the cell. for the virus to replicate, its rna must be converted to dna. the rna is converted by an enzyme called reverse transcriptase (produced by hiv). hiv mutates easily at this point because reverse transcriptase is prone to errors during the conversion of viral rna to dna. merckmanuals.com

  • although the function of m6a modification in cancer is becoming increasingly clear, its effect on protein translation and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of this mark on cancer progression remain unclear. following the development of merip-seq (methylated rna immunoprecipitation sequencing) and miclip (m6a individual-nucleotide-resolution cross-linking and immunoprecipitation) technologies, researchers have found that non-coding rnas, including long non-coding rna (lncrna), microrna (mirna), circular rna (circrna), transfer rna, ribosomal rna, and small nuclear rna, are also capable of modifying dna and rna bases in cancer cells.15,16 furthermore, non-coding rna also participates in the regulation of m6a modification, thus affecting cancer progression (figure 1).3,17 nih.gov