Wordigg

xdr Definitions

adj

initialism of en.

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Scrabble the word xdr

xdr thesaurus

Examples include xdr

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  • drug-resistant tb is of increasing concern. multidrug-resistant (mdr) tb is resistant to the 2 most effective drugs, isoniazid and rifampin. extensively drug-resistant (xdr) tb is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, any fluoroquinolone, and ≥1 of 3 injectable second-line drugs (amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin). mdr tb is less common than drug-susceptible tb, but globally approximately 490,000 new cases of mdr tb are diagnosed each year, and some countries have proportions of mdr tb >25% (table 4-21). mdr and xdr tb are of particular concern among hiv-infected or other immunocompromised people. as of 2016, xdr tb had been reported in 123 countries. cdc.gov

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  • especially alarming has been the spread of drug-resistant strains of tb. by the late 1990s scientific experts and international health officials warned that drug-resistant strains were spreading faster than had been anticipated. bacteria can survive and become drug resistant in patients whose treatment is not properly monitored and seen to completion. multidrug resistant (mdr) tb strains are resistant to two or more of the commonly prescribed first-line drugs, while extensively drug resistant (xdr) strains are also resistant to three or classes of the more toxic second-line drugs. some believe that unless major new treatment strategies are initiated in source countries, drug-resistant tb will eventually become epidemic even in areas with good control programs, such as europe and america. in 2011, who estimated that there were more than 80,000 cases, many of them undiagnosed, of drug-resistant tb in europe. factmonster.com

  • this is a busy slide. i’m going to go through it quickly. this says that we’re starting today in 2011 by accepting from providers responses to documentation requests in pdf/xdr format. next year we’re going to try to accept responses to documentation requests in pdf/x12 format. in 2013 we want to move into structured orders and structured progress notes. in 2014 we hope to be able to have review contractors sending out structured documentation requests, as well as review results, letters, demand letters and others. hhs.gov

  • especially alarming has been the spread of drug-resistant strains of tb. by the late 1990s scientific experts and international health officials warned that drug-resistant strains were spreading faster than had been anticipated. bacteria can survive and become drug resistant in patients whose treatment is not properly monitored and seen to completion. multidrug resistant (mdr) tb strains are resistant to two or more of the commonly prescribed first-line drugs, while extensively drug resistant (xdr) strains are also resistant to three or classes of the more toxic second-line drugs. some believe that unless major new treatment strategies are initiated in source countries, drug-resistant tb will eventually become epidemic even in areas with good control programs, such as europe and america. in 2011, who estimated that there were more than 80,000 cases, many of them undiagnosed, of drug-resistant tb in europe. infoplease.com

  • xdr-tb treatment options are very seriously limited and patients may respond to even fewer available other medicines. patients with xdr-tb can still be cured, but with the currently available drugs, the possibility of complete cure becomes lower than in those with ordinary tb or even mdr-tb. cure of xdr-tb infection depends on the extent of drug responsiveness, disease severity and a person’s immunity. xdr-tb is a highly drug-resistant strain that has significantly worse outcomes and can even be deadly. medicinenet.com

  • a global study of hospitalized patients found that more than a third of inpatients with cirrhosis had multidrug-resistant (mdr) bacterial infections, and almost 10% had extensively drug-resistant (xdr) infections. furthermore, the prevalence of mdr infections varied widely by country, from 16% in the u.s. to 73% in india, where the xdr infection rate was 33%. medpagetoday.com

  • the bcg vaccine, made from an attenuated strain of m. bovis is given to > 80% of the world’s children, primarily in high-burden countries. overall average efficacy is probably only 50%. bcg clearly reduces the rate of extrathoracic tb in children, especially tb meningitis, and may prevent tb infection. thus, it is considered worthwhile in high-burden regions. immunization with bcg has few indications in the us, except unavoidable exposure of a child to an infectious tb case that cannot be effectively treated (ie, pre-xdr or xdr-tb) and possibly previously uninfected health care workers exposed to mdr-tb or xdr-tb on a regular basis. merckmanuals.com

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