the democratic republic of the congo.
the unit of currency of zaire.
dr congodemocratic republic of the congocongo
(21) in the mid-1960s, after surveying the air operation in the democratic republic of the congo (now zaire) providing support for central government forces combating soviet- and chinese communist-backed rebels--an operation staffed by exiled cuban pilots acting under the direction of a handful of ddp air operations officers--a usaf team concluded that standing operating procedures would have obliged the air force to use roughly eight times as many personnel. cia.gov
the 2014–2016 ebola outbreak in west africa was responsible for more than 28,600 infections and 11,325 deaths. to date, it’s the deadliest ebola epidemic. the zaire strain of the virus was the culprit. (4) experts believe many factors contributed to the severity of this outbreak, including a shortage of medical professionals, a lack of preparation, and a delay in efforts to control the spread of the virus. additionally, the region was recovering from years of civil war. (5) everydayhealth.com
amid the legitimate refugees from the genocide were hutu militiamen, who began waging guerrilla warfare from refugee camps in zaire. the hutu guerrillas in zaire, as well as zaire's threat to exile their own ethnic tutsi, led to rwanda's support of rebel forces, headed by laurent kabila, bent on overthrowing zaire's mobutu sese seko. but rwanda soon grew disenchanted with kabila's new regime. the kabila government was not able to prevent the raids from hutu guerrillas that continued to traumatize the country and destabilize the region. in aug. 1998, a little more than a year after kabila took over, a rebellion began against his reign, instigated by rwanda and uganda. factmonster.com
mobutu's downfall began in october 1996, when he planned to banish the zairian tutsi who had lived for centuries in eastern zaire. neighboring rwanda's tutsi-led government came to their aid, as did other rebel groups, one of which was led by kabila. after conquering eastern zaire, kabila earned the support of a host of mobutu's enemies, including uganda, burundi, tanzania, zambia, zimbabwe, and angola. his troops swept through the country, encountering little resistance. mobutu fled in exile to morocco on may 16, where he died of cancer in september. infoplease.com
since that time, there have been multiple outbreaks of ebola virus, and researchers have identified five strains; four of the strains are responsible for the high death rates. the four ebola strains are termed as follows: zaire, sudan, tai forest, and bundibugyo virus, with zaire ebola virus being the most lethal strain. researchers have found a fifth strain termed reston in the philippines. the strain infects primates, pigs, and humans and causes few if any symptoms and no deaths in humans. most outbreaks of the more lethal strains of ebola have occurred in sub-saharan west africa and mainly in small- or medium-sized towns. health care professionals believe bats, monkeys, and other animals maintain the non-human virus life cycle in the wild; humans can become infected from handling and/or eating infected animals. medicinenet.com
salama added that "according to the most recent lab results," the strain involved in this outbreak is the ebola zaire strain -- the same strain involved in the most recent outbreak, where the investigational ebola vaccine was deployed. salama estimated that 3,000 vaccine doses are still available in the city of kinshasa. medpagetoday.com
vaccines work by stimulating immunity. viral vaccines in general use include hepatitis a, hepatitis b, human papillomavirus, influenza, japanese encephalitis, measles, mumps, poliomyelitis, rabies, rotavirus, rubella, tick-borne encephalitis, varicella, and yellow fever. adenovirus and smallpox vaccines are available but used only in high-risk groups (eg, military recruits). there is a vaccine for prevention of disease caused by zaire ebola virus. merckmanuals.com
the biodefense research section (brs), within the vpl, is independently led by dr. nancy sullivan, ph.d., section chief, who discovered mab114 (ansuvimab) in collaboration with the institut national de recherche biomédicale (inrb) in the democratic republic of the congo. this antibody is effective in reducing mortality from ebola virus disease, and is currently undergoing a biologic license evaluation by the fda, sponsored by ridgeback biotherapeutics. dr. sullivan has also developed recombinant adenovirus vector vaccines for ebola zaire, ebola sudan, and marburg that are undergoing clinical development. nih.gov