an analgesic drug used for the amelioration of severe and chronic pain.
indeed, when the patient was admitted to the pain clinic two months before ziconotide treatment, he had only slightly elevated anxiety and depression subscores on the hospital anxiety and depression scale and a psychological evaluation showed no sign of depressive disorder other than sleep disturbance, which was blamed on pain, the researchers reported. medpagetoday.com
intraspinal opioids (eg, morphine 5 to 10 mg epidurally or 0.5 to 1 mg intrathecally for acute pain) can provide relief, which is prolonged when a hydrophilic drug such as morphine is used; they are typically used perioperatively. implanted infusion devices can provide long-term neuraxial infusion, usually for cancer-related pain. these devices can also be used with other drugs (eg, local anesthetics, clonidine, ziconotide). merckmanuals.com